The fact that each person's skin color is different is mainly due to genetics. This causes the different composition of the skin pigments, resulting in different skin tones caused by the melanin pigment. And when exposed to sunlight for a long time, the skin will become darker, which results in a change in skin tone. This is caused by the change in the number of skin pigments which result from the changes of the enzyme that stimulates the synthesis of melanin pigments.
In our epidermis, in addition to keratin cell, melanocyte is also one of the component. Within the melanocyte, there is a substance called melanin or melanin pigment contained in a bag called melanosome. As a result, melanocytes are distributed throughout the skin layer, therefore seen as various skin tones. There are 3 types of melanin pigments: 1. Eumelanin
This type of melanin pigment is brown and black, most common in dark skinned people. 2. Pheomelanin
There is a red or yellow pigment, which is more common in white people. 3. Mixed melanin
มีเม็ดสีเมลานินทั้งสองชนิดผสมกัน There are two types of melanin pigment mixed together.
In the process of melanin pigment synthesis, the most active substance is enzyme tyrosinase which converts tyrosine to the intermediate DOPA until it becomes eumelanin which is blackish brown. If this enzyme is overworked, the melanin pigment is produced more until it becomes darker or black. Substances that play a secondary role is glutathione and cysteine which will change DOPAquinone to more pheomelanin until the skin is white. The truth you should know about glutathione.
'Glutathione' is an important antioxidant that the body can produce by itself from 3 types of amino acids which are cysteine, glutamate and glycine. The glutamate and glycine are already abundant in the bloodstream. Glutathione is also obtained from protein foods, egg, and milk, as well as fruits and vegetables such as asparagus, avocados and walnuts. The body stores the produced glutathione in the liver. Glutathione can be found in every cell of the body and helps the body absorb more vitamin C and E. In addition, glutathione also plays a role in inhibiting tyrosinase enzymes, change the production of eumelanin to pheomelanin.
Several studies found that glutathione cannot be absorbed from the stomach because it will be broken down and excreted through the intestines. Therefore, taking glutathione tablets does not benefit at all. For injection, if glutathione is given in large quantities, it can result in life-threatening . Nutritional value for whitening skin safely. L-Cysteine
It is a type of amino acid that the body can produce by itself but in small quantity and can be increased from eating protein foods.
- Help strengthen the body. It is part of the proteins in the body e.g., skin, hair, nails, etc.
- Stimulates the production of glutathione in the body, Antioxidants: L-cysteine will work with two other amino acids, is L-glutamate and L-glycine, Both of these amino acid are abundantly found in the body.
- Stimulate more production of melanin pigment
- Help inhibit the activity of the enzyme tysinase from converting DOPA to DOPA-quinone, which affect in less melanin pigment production.
- Stimulate other enzymes’ functions to enhance body’s resistance against foreign matters, including bacteria and viruses, causing the symptoms of various infectious diseases to disappear faster.
Amla extract is a rich source of high vitamin C. It also contains polyphenol antioxidants. Therefore, it can be considered that Amla extract plays a role as a strong antioxidant,
Grape seed extract
- Help slow down the deterioration of skin cells with antioxidant activity.
- Inhibit melanin production by inhibiting the activity of enzyme tyrosinase.
- Enhance the efficiency of L-cysteine, thus help to maintain the amount of glutathione in the body.
There is an important substance called “Oligomeric Proanthocyanin” or OPC, which is a group of bioflavonoids.
- Exert strong antioxidant activity, stronger than vitamin E and C, so it's called a super anti-oxidant.
- Inhibits collagenase enzyme, which is an important factor that destroys collagen.
- Helps increase blood flow through capillary system throughout the body.
- Inhibit melanin pigmentation by reducing the amount of tyrosinase enzyme.
- Protect skin from UV rays which affects the production of melanin pigment.
- Increase the flexibility and strength of collagen and elastin tissues, making the skin elastic.